EDEN IAS

Article 32 and Supreme Court| GS ARTICLES

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Context:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Supreme Court Bench headed by Chief Justice of India S A Bobde observed that it is &ldquo;trying to discourage&rdquo; individuals from filing petitions under Article 32 of the Constitution. The observation came during the hearing of a petition seeking the release of journalist Siddique Kappan, who was arrested with three others while on their way to Hathras, Uttar Pradesh, to report on an alleged gangrape and murder.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>What is Article 32 </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>It is one of the fundamental rights listed in the Constitution that each citizen is entitled. Article 32 deals with the &lsquo;Right to Constitutional Remedies&rsquo;, or affirms the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred in Part III of the Constitution.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>It states that the Supreme Court &ldquo;shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part&rdquo;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The Article is included in Part III of the Constitution with other fundamental rights including to Equality, Freedom of Speech and Expression, Life and Personal Liberty, and Freedom of Religion. Only if any of these fundamental rights is violated can a person can approach the Supreme Court directly under Article 32.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The Constituent Assembly debated whether fundamental rights including this one could be suspended or limited during an Emergency. The Article cannot be suspended except during the period of Emergency.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Can High Courts be approached in cases of violation of fundamental rights?</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Both the High Courts and the Supreme Court can be approached for violation or enactment of fundamental rights through five kinds of writs:Habeas corpus, Mandamus, Quo warranto, Prohibition, Certiorari.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Procedure to Approach</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>In civil or criminal matters, the first remedy available to an aggrieved person is that of trial courts, followed by an appeal in the High Court and then the Supreme Court. When it comes to violation of fundamental rights, an individual can approach the High Court under Article 226 or the Supreme Court directly under Article 32. Article 226, however, is not a fundamental right like Article 32.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Supreme Court&rsquo;s recent observations on Article 32</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The court had said that the right to approach the Supreme Court under Article 32 is itself a fundamental right and that &ldquo;there is no doubt that if a citizen of India is deterred in any case from approaching this Court in exercise of his right under Article 32 of the Constitution of India, it would amount to a serious and direct interference in the administration of justice in the country&rdquo;.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Examples , where Supreme Court has found deterrence in use of Article 32.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>1) A Nagpur-based man fileda case in Supreme Court for invoking Article 32. Man was arrested in three cases for alleged defamatory content against Maharashtra Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray and others. The Bench directed him to approach the High Court first.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>2) In another matter, the Bench of CJI Bobde, Justice A S Bopanna and Justice V Ramasubramanian had issued a contempt notice to the Assistant Secretary of the Maharashtra Assembly who, in a letter to Republic TV editor-in-chief Arnab Goswami, had questioned him for approaching the top court against the breach-of-privilege notice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>3) Relief under Article 32 was also sought in a petition filed by Telugu poet Varavara Rao&rsquo;s wife, P Hemalatha, against the conditions of his detention in jail since 2018. The Supreme Court directed the Bombay High Court to expedite the hearing on a bail plea filed on medical grounds, pending since September. It observed that once a competent court had taken cognisance, it was under the authority of that court to decide on the matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>4) In the case of the journalist Siddique Kappan, the court asked why the petitioners could not go to the High Court. It has sought responses from the Centre and the UP government.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>What have been Supreme Court&rsquo;s observations over the years?</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>In Romesh Thappar vs State of Madras (1950), the Supreme Court observed that Article 32 provides a &ldquo;guaranteed&rdquo; remedy for the enforcement of fundamental rights. &ldquo;This Court is thus constituted the protector and guarantor of fundamental rights, and it cannot, consistently with the responsibility so laid upon it, refuse to entertain applications seeking protection against infringements of such rights.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”>&nbsp;</p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Source: Polity and Governance</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

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