EDEN IAS

BHAKTI MOVEMENT | GS ARTICLES

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>Bhakti Movement emerged as a devotional trend in medieval age and it worked as silent revolution transforming the</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>socio-religious realm of Indian society.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″><b>ORIGIN</b> :</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Originated in southern parts of India between 7-12 century CE. , it slowly percolated to northern India by end of</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>century CE. In South India there were two main group of Bhakti saints-</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>1. <b>NAYANARS</b>(Shiva devotees)</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>2. <b>ALVARS</b>( Vishnu devotees)</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&nbsp;Word BHAKTI derived from Sanskrit word &ldquo;BHAJ&rdquo; meaning to share, participate and belong to.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″><b>Main characteristics of Bhakti Movement:</b></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; There was emphasis on love and devotion towards god.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull;Condemnation rituals, yagnas ,ceremonies and blind faith. Bhakti movement emphasized unity of god or one god</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>known by different names.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; The Bhakti movement gave emphasis on equality of all castes and bhakti saints treated people of all castes equally.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Bhakti saints emphasis on equality and love created atmosphere of amity and Hinduism and Islam closer.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Before the Bhakti movement, Sanskrit was the language to perform yagas or rituals and religious books or scriptures</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>were in Sanskrit . Bhakti saints preached and wrote in vernacular languages which were commonly understood by masses.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Before the bhakti movement, rituals and yagnas were performed to achieve grace of god. But Bhakti marg which</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>emphasized on love and devotion towards god allowed common masses to achieve salvation.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Due to bhakti, religion became democratic , spiritual and free of obsolete rituals and dogmas .</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″><b>Two Schools of Bhakti :</b></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″><b>1 . NIRGUNA SCHOOL:</b></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Imagined God as formless with no attribute or quality.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Rejected idol worship.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Example &ndash; KABIR , GURU NANAK and DADU DAYAL.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>2 . <b>SAGUNA SCHOOL:</b></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Thought of God having a definite form , quality , and positive attributes.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Thought God manifests himself in incarnations.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Believed in idol worship.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Example &ndash; RAMANANDA , MIRABAI and SURDAS.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″><b>BHAKTI MOVEMENT IN SOUTH INDIA</b>:</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>1 . <b>ALWARS</b>:</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Vaishnava saints who sang in praise of VISHNU or his avatar KRISHNA</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; There were 12 alwars</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; There hymns were compiled in &ldquo;DIVYA PRABANDHAM&rdquo;.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; ANDAL is only female Alwar saint(called MEERA of South)..</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>2 . <b>NAYANARS</b>:</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull;Shaivite saints who sang in praise of SHIVA.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Originally, 63 Nayanar saints.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; The details of lives of saints is described in work called TEVARAM( also called Dravida Veda).</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Hymns of Nayanars are collected inta a volume called TIRUMURAI.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>3 . <b>LINGAYATS/ VIR SHAIVA:</b></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull;Shaivite sect in Hinduism emerged in 12 century CE in Karnataka region.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Started by BASAVANNA and assisted by ALLAMAPRABHU and AKKA <b>MAHADEVI</b>.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:8px”><span style=”font-size:14px;”><span style=”line-height:107%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span style=”color:#595959″>&bull; Rejected caste system and wanted egalitarian society.</span></span></span></span></p>

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