Syllabus Section: Environment and Ecology


BIO REMEDIATION: Bioremediation can be defined as the methodology to remove or neutralize the waste and toxic substances in the environment with the help of microorganism and plants. In other words, it is the process to detoxify the pollution from the environment with the help of microorganisms, plants, or microbial or plant enzymes

A) IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION: The process of treatment of contaminated soil in the location where it was found is known as in- situ bioremediation.

  • Bioventing – Biodegradation of contaminants in soil by providing air or oxygen to existing soil microorganisms-uses low air flow rates to provide only enough oxygen.
  • Biosparging– Uses indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade organic constituents in the saturated zone.
  • Bioaugmentation– Adding culture microorganisms into the subsurface for the purpose of biodegrading specific soil and groundwater contaminants.

B) EX– SITU BIOREMEDIATION: The process involves deliberate relocation of the contaminated material (soil and water) to a different place & then treating it with micro organisms.

  • Land farming – It is a simple technique in which contaminated soil is excavated and then spread over an already prepared bed and at regular intervals tilled until pollutants are degraded.
  • Composting: It is a procedure that involves bringing together contaminated soil with non-hazardous organic materials such as manure or agricultural wastes.
  • Bio piles: They are a mixture of land farming and composting. Fundamentally, engineered cells are built as aerated compost piles.
  • Bioreactors – A slurry bioreactor is a containment vessel and machinery used to create a three-phase (solid, liquid, and gas) mixing condition to expand the bioremediation rate of soil-bound and water-soluble pollutants.


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