EDEN IAS

Daily MCQ UPSC Current Affairs

Daily MCQs for UPSC Current Affairs | 21ST DECEMBER 2022

Question 1: Consider the following statements:

  1. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) is the biologically active component of a drug product that produces the intended effects.
  2. Excipients are chemically inactive substances, such as lactose or mineral oil in the pill.
  3. The Katoch committee report had recommended how India can reduce its import dependence on APIs.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • All drugs are made up of two core components:
    • The API is the central ingredient.
    • The excipient includes substances other than the drug that help deliver the medication to your system.
  • Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) is the biologically active component of a drug product (tablet, capsule, cream, injectable) that produces the intended effects.
  • In contrast with the active ingredients, the inactive ingredients are usually called excipients in pharmaceutical contexts.
  • The main excipient that serves as a medium for conveying the active ingredient is usually called the vehicle. Petrolatum and mineral oil are common vehicles.
  • Excipients are chemically inactive substances, such as lactose or mineral oil in the pill.
  • These materials are used to help the medication remain stable and to control absorption when you take the drug.
  • Excipients should not have any effect on your health unless you are allergic to them.
  • Some drugs, such as combination therapies, have multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients that may act in different ways or treat different symptoms.
  • APIs find application in high-quality drugs that treat diseases in oncology, cardiology, CNS and neurology, orthopedics, pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, ophthalmology, and endocrinology.
  • In 2015-16, the Katoch committee report had recommended how India can reduce its import dependence on APIs, but the recommendations, including opening API parks or providing tax incentives, have hardly been implemented.

Question 2: Djvu, Phobos and Hive are seen in the news, are related with:

  1. Mars Missions
  2. Ransomwares
  3. Asteroids
  4. Neo-banks

Correct Answer: B

Explanation

According to Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), India witnessed a 51% rise in ransomware incidents in first half of FY-2022. This was largely due to ransomwares like Djvu, Phobos, Hive.

Question 3: Consider the following statements:

  1. Fast Breeder Reactor uses Pu-239 as fuel.
  2. In Pressurized Water Reactor, natural uranium is used as fuel.
  3. Advanced Heavy Water Reactor will use Thorium to make fuel U-233.
  4. Light water is used as moderator and coolant in the Boiling Water Reactor 

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2, 3 and 4
  3. 1, 3 and 4
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

India’s three stage nuclear program was formulated in 1950s by Dr. Homi Bhabha to secure the country’s long term energy independence, via use of uranium and thorium reserves found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South India. The ultimate focus is on Thorium Fuel Cycle.

The three stages are as follows: First Stage: Following Reactors

  • Boiling Water Reactor
  • Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor
  • Pressurized Water Reactor

BWR:

  • In 1962, India signed an agreement with USA and got two BWR.
  • First installed reactor at Tarapore.
  • Light water as moderator and coolant.
  • Enriched uranium as Fuel.

PHWR:

  • Also known as CANDU- Canadian Deuterium Uranium
  • Heavy water as moderator and coolant
  • Natural uranium as fuel
  • Majority of India’s working reactor are this

PWR:

  • Light Water Reactor
  • Light water as the moderator and coolant
  • Enriched uranium as fuel
  • USP is safety mechanisms incorporated in them
  • India is having PWR from Russia and France VVER: Voda Voda Energy Reactor from Russia

Second stage:

  • Only one type of reactor Fast Breeder Reactor:
  • First at Kalpakkam in TN
  • Uses Pu-239 as fuel and u-238 is converted into Pu-239
  • Also known as Fast Neutron Reactor
  • No moderator
  • Coolant is liquid Na

Third Stage: AHWR: Advanced Heavy Water Reactor:

  • BARC is developing
  • Fuel is U-233 but it will use Thorium to make U-233, so very important
  • Light water as coolant
  • Heavy water as moderator

Question 4: Consider the following statements:

  1. Darjeeling Tea was first Indian product to get GI tag.
  2. The application for GI must include the geographical map of the territory or region in the country where the goods are manufactured and the class of goods to which it shall apply.
  3. A GI tag is valid only for 10 years.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • Darjeeling Tea was first Indian product to get GI tag for its distinctive aroma and flavour.
  • The Geographical Indication tag is granted as per the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999. The application for GI is open to all the producers of goods or an organization. The application must include the geographical map of the territory or region in the country where the goods are manufactured and the class of goods to which it shall apply.
  • A GI tag is valid only for 10 years although it can be renewed from time to time for a further period of 10 years each through every subsequent renewal.
  • Article 23 of TRIPS provides additional protection for the GI for wines and spirits. Along with this, there are certain treaties administered by the WIPO which deal partly or completely with the protection of GI such as the Paris Convention, Lisbon Agreement, Madrid Agreement, and the Protocol for the Madrid Agreement, etc.

Question 5: Consider the following statements:

  1. Any entity can use geographical indications from that particular place of origin.
  2. A geographical indication cannot claim colour features, but a trademark can.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

Trademark and Geographical Indication

  • The main difference between the two is that a trademark is a sign which is used by a business concerned to differentiate the services or products from their competitors. Whereas Geographical Indication acts like an indicator which provides the origin of the commodity or product. In the case of a trademark, it can only be used by one entity.
  • Any entity can use geographical indications from that particular place of origin. A deceptive geographical indication can be identified as a trademark and render trademark The reverse of this process is not practical.
  • A geographical indication cannot claim colour features, but a trademark can.
  • Lastly, a geographical indication can be a politico-geographical name that is the name of a place. Trademark can be a letter, a word, numerals or a combination of letters or a hologram and so on.

Question 6: Consider the following statements:

  1. Blue hydrogen is extracted from water using renewable electricity.
  2. Grey hydrogen is extracted from fossil gas before CO2 emissions are trapped and stored permanently underground.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

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