EDEN IAS

Daily MCQ UPSC Current Affairs

Daily MCQs for UPSC Current Affairs | 26TH DECEMBER 2022

Question 25: Consider the following statements:

  1. Hydrogen doesn’t typically exist by itself in nature.
  2. Hydrogen fuel has three times the energy density per mass as methane or gasoline.
  3. Water being the only end product makes hydrogen fuel a zero-carbon fuel.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • The hydrogen gets a ‘green’ prefix when it is produced from renewable or carbon- neutral green energy sources such as wind power or solar power.
  • Based on the process of hydrogen extraction, the other two types are called grey hydrogen and blue hydrogen.
  • Grey hydrogen is the one in which hydrogen is obtained directly from natural gas and the by-product carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere.
  • In blue hydrogen, the hydrogen fuel is extracted in a similar way, but the carbon dioxide is stored for future use instead of emitting into the atmosphere.
  • Since hydrogen doesn’t typically exist by itself in nature it must be obtained from compounds that contain it.
  • The most important advantage of hydrogen fuel is that it has three times the energy density per mass as methane or gasoline which can make its transportation cost- However, being the smallest element, it has a higher risk of leakage.
  • In a typical fuel cell, hydrogen gas is allowed to react with oxygen to release energy with This process is done in a controlled manner by utilizing platinum catalyst.
  • Hydrogen gas is allowed to pass through the anode of the fuel cell; as it strikes the platinum catalyst, also known as Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM), it splits into hydrogen protons and electrons.
  • The protons pass through to the cathode, but electrons are forced to flow through an external circuit to form an electric current. On the other side of the fuel cell, oxygen enters the cathode and combines with the hydrogen proton and returning electrons from the external circuit to form water – basically the reverse process of electrolysis.
  • Water being the only end product makes hydrogen fuel a zero-carbon fuel.

Question 26: Consider the following statements with respect to UNSC:

  1. Each year, the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members for a three- year term.
  2. Decisions of the Security Council on matters are made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members.
  3. Any member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: B

Explanation

UNSC:

  • The Security Council was established by the UN Charter in It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
  • The other 5 organs of the United Nations are—the General Assembly (UNGA), the Trusteeship Council, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat.
  • Its primary responsibility is to work to maintain international peace and security.
  • The council is headquartered at New York.
  • The council has 15 members: the five permanent members and ten non- permanent members elected for two-year terms.
  • The five permanent members are the United States, the Russian Federation, France, China and the United Kingdom.
  • Each year, the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members (out of ten in total) for a two-year term. The ten non-permanent seats are distributed on a regional basis.
  • The council’s presidency is a capacity that rotates every month among its 15 members.
  • Each member of the Security Council has one vote. Decisions of the Security Council on matters are made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members. A “No” vote from one of the five permanent members blocks the passage of the resolution.
  • Any member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that member are specially affected.

Question 27: Consider the following statements:

  1. The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonization of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons.
  2. China is a member of the NSG but not of the Wassenaar Arrangement or the MTCR.
  3. MTCR is an informal and voluntary partnership among 35 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying greater than 300 kg payload for more than 500 km.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: A

Explanation

  • Multilateral export control regimes (MECR) are voluntary and non-binding agreements created by the major supplier countries that have agreed to co-operate in their effort to prevent and regulate the transfer of certain military and dual use It aims at preventing the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).
  • They are independent of the United Nations.
  • Their regulations apply only to members, and it is not obligatory for a country to join.
  • India is now a member of three of the four MECRs, except the nuclear supplier Group.
  • There are currently four such regimes under MECR 
  • The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), for the control of nuclear related technology.
  • The Australia Group (AG) for control of chemical and biological technology that could be weaponized.
  • The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) for the control of rockets and other aerial vehicles capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction.
  • The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual- Use Goods and Technologies.

Nuclear Suppliers Group

  • The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports.
  • The NSG came into being as a response to the 1974 nuclear tests by India. There is a Trigger List and items from the list are forbidden to be exported to non-NPT member countries.
  • It has 48 participating governments. China is a member of the NSG but not of the Wassenaar Arrangement or the MTCR.
  • India is not a member of the NSG because all its efforts were consistently blocked by China and some other members.

Australia Group

  • The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonization of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons.
  • The formation of the Australia Group (AG) in 1985 was prompted by Iraq’s use of chemical weapons during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
  • Coordination of National export control measures assists Australia Group members to fulfil their obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention and Biological & Toxin Weapons Convention.
  • The Australia Group has a list of 54 compounds that are identified to be regulated in global This list includes more items than the Chemical Weapons Convention.
  • It has 43 members (including the European union). The members work on a consensus The annual meeting is held in Paris, France.
  • India joined the Australia Group (AG) on 19 January 2018.
  • The Australia Group decided to admit India as the Group’s 43rd Participant through a consensus decision.
  • India’s entry into the Group would be mutually beneficial and further contribute to international security and non-proliferation objectives.

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

  • It is an informal and voluntary partnership among 35 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying greater than 500 kg payload for more than 300 km.
  • This is a non–treaty association of member countries with certain guidelines about the information sharing, national control laws and export policies for missile systems and a rule-based regulation mechanism to limit the transfer of such critical technologies of these missile systems.
  • It was established in April 1987 by G-7 countries – USA, UK, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, and Japan.
  • In 1992, the focus of the regime extended to on the proliferation of missiles for the delivery of all types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), i.e., nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
  • It is not a legally binding treaty. Hence, no punitive measures could be taken against non-compliance to the guidelines of the regime.
  • These efforts of non-proliferation of ballistic missile systems had further been strengthened by “The International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation”, also known as the Hague Code of Conduct (HCOC), which was established on 25 November 2002 as an arrangement to prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles with 136 UN member countries including India.
  • India was inducted into the Missile Technology Control Regime in 2016 as the 35th member.
  • China is not a member of this regime, but it had verbally pledged to adhere to its original guidelines but not to the subsequent additions.

Question 28: Consider the following statements with respect to the Wassenaar Arrangement:

  1. The Wassenaar Arrangement is a voluntary export control regime. The Arrangement, formally established in July 1996, has 52 members who exchange information on transfers of conventional weapons and dual-use goods and technologies.
  2. Wassenaar Arrangement’s Secretariat is in Vienna, Austria.
  3. It is a successor to the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) from the Cold War era.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: B

Explanation

Wassenaar Arrangement

  • The Wassenaar Arrangement is a voluntary export control regime. The Arrangement, formally established in July 1996, has 42 members who exchange information on transfers of conventional weapons and dual-use goods and technologies.
  • Dual-use refers to the ability of a good or technology to be used for multiple purposes – usually peaceful and military.
  • The Wassenaar Arrangement has been established in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies
  • Wassenaar Arrangement’s Secretariat is in Vienna, Austria.
  • It has 42 member states comprising mostly NATO and EU states.
  • Participating States are required to report their arms transfers and transfers/denials of certain dual-use goods and technologies to destinations outside the Arrangement on a six-monthly basis.
  • It is a successor to the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) from the Cold War era.
  • The Wassenaar Arrangement has control lists that document the dual-use goods, and These lists are updated regularly.
  • India was inducted to the Wassenaar Arrangement on 7 December 2017 as the 42nd member.

Question 29: Consider the following statements:

  1. iNCOVACC is the world’s first Intranasal vaccine for COVID to receive approval.
  2. iNCOVACC is a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus vectored vaccine.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

  • Bharat Biotech International Limited (BBIL) announced that iNCOVACC (BBV154), has received approval from the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) under Restricted Use in Emergency Situations for ages 18 and above, in India, for heterologous booster doses.
  • iNCOVACC is the world’s first Intranasal vaccine for COVID to receive approval for the primary 2-dose schedule and the heterologous booster dose. iNCOVACC is a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus vectored vaccine with a pre-fusion stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike This vaccine candidate was evaluated in phases I, II, and III clinical trials with successful results.

Question 30: Consider the following statements:

  1. Mariner 4 was the first spacecraft that undertook the first flyby of mars.
  2. NASA successfully used steam to propel Equuleus Spacecraft toward the moon.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: A

Explanation

  • Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner-Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode.
  • It was designed to conduct closeup scientific observations of Mars and to transmit these observations to Earth.
  • Launched on November 28, 1964, Mariner 4 performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first close-up pictures of the Martian surface.
  • It was the first spacecraft that undertook the first flyby of mars, becoming the first- ever spacecraft to take close-up photographs of another planet. It was a mission of NASA, launched in Its day of launch is commemorated as Red Planet Day.
  • Recently, Japan’s space agency JAXA successfully used steam to propel Equuleus Spacecraft toward the moon. It was the world’s first successful orbit control beyond low-earth orbit using a water propellant propulsion system.
  • Equuleus (EQUilibriUm Lunar-Earth point 6U) is a deep-space 6U spacecraft launched by NASA’s Orion Spacecraft. It aims to demonstrate low-energy trajectory control technologies by reaching to the Earth-Moon Lagrange point 2 (EML2).

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