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Daily MCQ UPSC Current Affairs

Daily MCQs for UPSC Current Affairs | 29TH NOVEMBER 2022

Question 11: Consider the following statements with respect to Mangrove Alliance for Climate:

  1. Mangrove Alliance for Climate is Launched at Cop27 of the UNFCCC is led by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Indonesia.
  2. It seeks to educate and spread awareness worldwide on the role of mangroves in curbing global warming.
  3. India is not a part of it.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: A

Explanation

Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC):

  • Launched at Cop27, an initiative led by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Indonesia, the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) includes India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Japan, and Spain. It seeks to educate and spread awareness worldwide on the role of mangroves in curbing global warming and its potential as a solution for climate change.
  • However, the intergovernmental alliance works on a voluntary basis which means that there are no real checks and balances to hold members accountable. Instead, the parties will decide their own commitments and deadlines regarding planting and restoring mangroves.

Question 12: Consider the following statements with respect to Mangrove Alliance for Climate:

  1. Indonesia hosts one-third of the overall areas of mangroves globally.
  2. India holds around 3 percent of South Asia’s mangrove population.
  3. Greenwashing is the tendency among firms and governments to mark all kinds of activities as climate-friendly without having any verifiable mechanisms.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: B

Explanation

  • South Asia houses some of the most extensive areas of mangroves globally, while Indonesia hosts one-fifth of the overall
  • India holds around 3 percent of South Asia’s mangrove population. Besides the Sundarbans in West Bengal, the Andamans region, the Kachchh and Jamnagar areas in Gujarat too have substantial mangrove cover.

Greenwashing

  • There is a growing tendency among firms and governments to mark all kinds of activities as climate-friendly, as something that would lead to emissions reduction, or avoidance of emissions. Many of these claims are unverifiable, misleading, or while they help in boosting the image of the entity, sometimes even helping them garner benefits, they do nothing in the fight against climate change.

Question 13: Consider the following statements:

  1. International Drought Resilience Alliance (IDRA) was launched at COP27 of the UNFCCC by Spain.
  2. There is no global convention for land, other than UNCCD.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

  • Spain and Senegal led 30 countries and 20 organizations to launch the International Drought Resilience Alliance (IDRA) November 7 at the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) at Sharm El-Sheikh.
  • First announced by Spain at the 77th session of the UN General Assembly in 2022.
  • Significance: there is no global convention for land, other than UNCCD, which mostly focuses on desertification.
  • A ‘specific solution’ for the United Nations to the impacts of climate change and aims to move from emergency response to building long-term resilience.

Question 14: Consider the following statements:

  1. Middle East Green Initiative is Saudi Arabia led regional dialogue on climate launched at COP27 of the UNFCCC.
  2. Its objective is to plant 50 billion trees across the middle east.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: B

Explanation

Middle East Green Initiative

  • It is a Saudi Arabia led regional dialogue on climate launched in 2021 to bring together leaders from across the MENA region (Middle East/North Africa) and beyond.
  • The first Middle East Green Initiative Summit was hosted by His Royal Highness the Crown Prince in Riyadh on October 25, 2021. It facilitated a first-of-its-kind regional dialogue on climate. The leaders in attendance expressed their appreciation for the Kingdom’s initiatives and efforts in the field of the environment and climate change.

Objective:

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Question 15: Consider the following statements:

  1. A green bond is a type of fixed-income instrument that is specifically earmarked to raise money for climate and environmental projects.
  2. The World Bank is a major issuer of green bonds.
  3. India’s first green bond was issued by Yes Bank.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • A green bond is a type of fixed-income instrument that is specifically earmarked to raise money for climate and environmental projects.
  • These bonds are typically asset-linked and backed by the issuing entity’s balance sheet, so they usually carry the same credit rating as their issuers’ other debt obligations.
  • The World Bank is a major issuer of green bonds and issued $14.4 billion of green bonds from 2008 through 2020.
  • Indian Government announced at the Union Budget 2022-23 that it will issue its maiden sovereign green bonds in the present financial year. The government announced that it would auction Rs.16,000 worth of green bonds during the second half of FY2023.
  • India’s first green bond was issued by Yes bank in 2015.

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