EDEN IAS

Daily MCQ UPSC Current Affairs

Daily MCQs for UPSC Current Affairs | 31ST DECEMBER 2022

Question 16: Consider the following statements:

  1. Article 4 of the constitution empowered the Parliament to make law relating to the formation of new states and alteration of existing states.
  2. As per article 133, Supreme Court has jurisdiction in cases related to disputes between the Union government and states.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) 1 only

B) 2 only

C) 1 and 2 only

D) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • Karnataka has cited Article 3 of the Constitution to argue that the Supreme Court does not have the jurisdiction to decide the borders of states, and only Parliament has the power to do so.
  • Article 3 empowered the Parliament to make law relating to the formation of new states and alteration of existing states.
  • Maharashtra has referred to Article 131 of the Constitution, which says that the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in cases related to disputes between the Union government and states.
  • Maharashtra approached the Supreme Court in 2004, challenging the State Reorganization Act. It demanded 865 villages and towns from five Karnataka districts to be merged with the state. The five districts are Belagavi, Karwar, Vijayapura, Kalaburagi and Bidar.
  • In 2007, Karnataka started building the Suvarna Vidhana Soudha (Legislative Assembly) in Belagavi to assert its control over the region.

Question 17: Consider the following statements:

  1. A company goes for buyback of shares when it feels that its stock is undervalued or fallen too much.
  2. Share buyback helps in increasing the promoter shareholding.
  3. In the case of share buyback, the company pays the tax and shareholders are exempted from paying tax on the income generated in the process.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) 1 and 2

B) 2 and 3

C) 1 and 3

D) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • One of the reasons for a company to go for buyback of shares is when it feels that its stock is undervalued or fallen too much.
  • By buying outstanding shares, a company reduces the number of shares in the market, and this can increase the value of the remaining shares. Share buyback also helps in increasing the promoter shareholding, which can act as a safeguard against any threat of hostile corporate takeover.
  • There were instances when promoters also participated in the buyback and surrendered their shares.

What is a share buyback?

  • When a listed company buys its own shares from the existing shareholders, it’s known as a share buyback, which is also called as share repurchase. The process reduces the number of outstanding shares in the open market over a period of time.
  • The maximum limit of any buy-back is 25 per cent or less of the aggregate of paid-up capital and free reserves of a company.
  • Through buyback, a company can reward its shareholders in a tax-effective manner.
  • The dividend that a company pays is taxed at the company level and also at the shareholder level.
  • In the case of share buyback, the company pays the tax and shareholders are exempted from paying tax on the income generated in the process.
  • To be eligible to participate in the share repurchase process, a shareholder needs to hold the shares of the company, which has announced the buyback, before the record date declared in the announcement. The share also needs to be held in the demat form.

Question 18: Consider the following statements:

  1. The Returning officers (RO) is appointed for each constituency by the Election Commission.
  2. The District Magistrate is the ex-officio RO in Lok Sabha elections while the Sub- Divisional Magistrate is the RO in state assembly elections.
  3. The security forces, including CRPF and local police, are under the authority of the RO of the constituency.
  4. Candidates who were on the ballot are also allowed in the counting room along with their representatives.
  5. The Returning officers (RO) appoint observers at each counting room, who are supposed to record the proceedings and file a report.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) All the statements are correct

B) Only two statements are correct

C) Only three statements are correct

D) Only four statements are correct

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • The Returning officers (RO) is appointed for each constituency by the Election Commission.
  • During the duration of the election, the RO is the highest authority in the constituency having a wide range of powers in order to peacefully and impartially conduct elections.
  • With respect to counting of votes, the RO has the following duties:
  • to designate the counting centers and get them approved by the Commission well in advance.
  • to send notice to the candidates about the place, date and time of counting of votes;
  • to appoint and train counting staff.
  • to count the votes and declare the result.
  • Generally, the District Magistrate is the ex-officio RO in Lok Sabha elections while the Sub-Divisional Magistrate is the RO in state assembly elections.
  • The security forces, including CRPF and local police, are under the authority of the RO of the constituency.
  • Candidates who were on the ballot are also allowed in the counting room along with their representatives.
  • The Election Commission appoints observers at each counting room, who are supposed to record the proceedings and file a They are generally employees of the Government of India and are tasked with the duty to oversee overall functioning of the election apparatus.
  • Micro-observers are appointed for each table where votes are being counted. Observers are also supposed to randomly verify votes counted for some EVMs in each round of counting. Overall, they are the eyes and ears of the Election Commision on the ground.

Question 19: Consider the following statements:

  1. Postal ballots votes are first to be counted.
  2. Early trends that are reported after counting begins are often a reflection of the votes logged through electronic voting machines.
  3. Voters under preventive detention can vote only by post.
  4. Members of the armed forces like the Army, Navy and Air Force and their spouses are entitled to vote only by post.
  5. The facility of Postal Ballot is also available for senior citizens and people with disabilities (PwD).

Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) 1, 3 and 5

B) 2, 3 and 5

C) 1, 3, 4 and 5

D) 1, 2 and 4

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

  • While a majority of votes are generally logged on specially designed electronic voting machines (EVMs), some votes are also logged in the form of postal ballots (PBs).
  • According to the Election Commission’s rules, PBs are the first to be counted, with EVMs following a minimum of half an hour after the counting of PBs begins.
  • Hence, early trends that are reported after counting begins are often a reflection of the votes logged through PBs.
  • Members of the armed forces like the Army, Navy and Air Force, members of the armed police force of a state (serving outside the state), government employees posted outside India and their spouses are entitled to vote only by post. In other words, they can’t vote in person.
  • Voters under preventive detention can also vote only by post.
  • Special voters such as the President of India, Vice President, Governors, Union Cabinet ministers, Speaker of the House and government officers on poll duty have the option to vote by post. But they have to apply through a prescribed form to avail this facility.
  • There is also a facility for absentee voters to vote through PBs. These voters are those who are unable to physically cast their vote due to their service conditions. For instance, railway employees who are posted outside their home state are counted as absentee voters.
  • In 2020, the Election Commission (EC) introduced the facility of PBs for senior citizens, people with disabilities (PwD) and those under Covid-19 quarantine.

Question 20: Consider the following statements:

  1. In case the victory margin is less than total number of postal ballots received then there should be a mandatory re-verification of all postal ballots.
  2. The Returning Officer (RO) is supposed to print ballot papers within 24 hours of the last date of nomination withdrawal and dispatch them within a day.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) 1 only

B) 2 only

C) 1 and 2 only

D) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

How are voters supposed to vote using postal ballots?

  • The Returning Officer (RO) is supposed to print ballot papers within 24 hours of the last date of nomination withdrawal and dispatch them within a day, to ensure that voters have enough time to receive the ballots, cast their vote and return the ballots to the RO on time.
  • According to EC rules, All PBs received by the RO up to the hour fixed for commencement of counting must be counted.
  • According to EC rules, in case the victory margin is less than total number of postal ballots received then there should be a mandatory re-verification of all postal ballots.

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