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Daily MCQ UPSC Current Affairs

Daily MCQs for UPSC Current Affairs | 7TH OCTOBER 2022

Source: Indian Express

Question 5: Consider the following statements:

  1. Plants get their carbon through the process of photosynthesis, while animals get it mainly through
  2. Plants and animals acquire carbon-12 and carbon-14 isotopes in roughly the same proportion as is available in the
  3. The carbon dating method makes use of the fact that a particular isotope of carbon called C-12, is radioactive, and decays at a rate that is well known.
  4. Carbon dating cannot be used to determine the age of non-living things, like rocks.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 3 and 4
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 1, 2 and 4
  4. 1, 2 and 3 Correct

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

  • Plants get their carbon through the process of photosynthesis, while animals get it mainly through food. Because plants and animals get their carbon from the atmosphere, they too acquire carbon-12 and carbon-14 isotopes in roughly the same proportion as is available in the atmosphere.
  • But when they die, the interactions with the atmosphere stops. There is no further intake of carbon (and no outgo either, because metabolism stops). Now, carbon-12 is stable and does not decay, while carbon-14 is Carbon-14 reduces to one-half of itself in about 5,730 years. This is what is known as its ‘half-life’.
  • So, after a plant or animal dies, the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14 in the body, or its remains, begins to change. This change can be measured and can be used to deduce the approximate time when the organism died.
  • The carbon dating method makes use of the fact that a particular isotope of carbon called C-14, with an atomic mass of 14, is radioactive, and decays at a rate that is well known.
  • The most abundant isotope of carbon in the atmosphere is carbon-12 or a carbon atom whose atomic mass is 12. A very small amount of carbon- 14 is also present. The ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14 in the atmosphere is almost static and is known.
  • Though extremely effective, carbon dating cannot be applied in all Specifically, it cannot be used to determine the age of non-living things, like rocks, for example. Also, the age of things that are more than 40,000-50,000 years cannot be arrived at through carbon dating. This is because after eight to ten cycles of half-lives have been crossed, the amount of carbon-14 becomes almost negligible and undetectable.
  • There are other methods to calculate the age of inanimate things, but carbon dating can also be used in an indirect way in certain for example, the age of the ice cores in glaciers and polar regions is determined using carbon dating by studying the carbon dioxide molecules trapped inside large ice sheets. The trapped molecules have no interaction with the outside atmosphere and are found in the same state as when they were trapped.

Question 6: Consider the following statements:

  1. QZSS, operated by Japan, is a global navigation system like GPS.
  2. Only three navigational systems have the global
  3. Navic is a regional navigation system, which is currently for use in India and adjacent areas.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1,2 and 3

Correct Answer: B

Explanation

  • The main difference is the serviceable area covered by these systems. GPS caters to users across the globe and its satellites circle the earth twice a day, while NavIC is currently for use in India and adjacent areas.
  • Like GPS, there are three more navigation systems that have global coverage – Galileo from the European Union, Russia-owned GLONASS and China’s Beidou. QZSS, operated by Japan, is another regional navigation system covering Asia-Oceania region, with a focus on Japan.
  • India’s 2021 satellite navigation draft policy stated the government will work towards “expanding the coverage from regional to global” to ensure availability of NavIC signal in any part of the world.

Question 7: Consider the following statements:

  1. The Attorney General is the Government of India’s first law officer and has the right of audience in all courts of the country.
  2. The Attorney General is appointed by the President from among persons who are qualified to be appointed a Judge of the High Court.
  3. The Attorney General of India shall have the right to speak and take part in the proceedings of, House without having right to vote.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1,2 and 3

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

  • The A-G is the Government of India’s first law officer and has the right of audience in all courts of the country.
  • Article 76(2) of the Constitution says, “it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President”.
  • Under Article 88, the “Attorney-General of India shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, either House, any joint sitting of the Houses, and any committee of Parliament of which he may be named a member”. However, he “shall not by virtue of this article be entitled to vote” in the House.
  • Under Article 76(1), the A-G is appointed by the President from among persons who are “qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court”.
  • Article 76(4) says “the Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine.”

Question 8: Consider the following statements:

  1. The NAAC (National Assessment and Accreditation Council) is an autonomous body under the University Grants Commission.
  2. Maharashtra accounts for the highest number of accredited colleges.
  3. Only higher education institutions that are at least six years old, or from where at least two batches of students have graduated, can apply for accreditation.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1,2 and 3

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • The National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) courted controversy recently over the rating of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and allegations of bribery in the process.
  • The NAAC, an autonomous body under the University Grants Commission (UGC), assesses and certifies HEIs with gradings as part of Through a multi-layered process, a higher education institution learns whether it meets the standards of quality set by the evaluator in terms of curriculum, faculty, infrastructure, research, and other parameters. The ratings of institutions range from A++ to C. If an institution is graded D, it means it is not accredited.
  • From the prevailing “input-based” approach, the NAAC plans to adopt an “outcome-based approach”.
  • Among the states, Maharashtra accounts for the highest number of accredited colleges at 1,869 – more than twice as many as Karnataka’s 914, the second highest. Tamil Nadu has the most accredited universities at 43.
  • Can all higher educational institutes apply for accreditation?
  • Under the rules, only higher education institutions that are at least six years old, or from where at least two batches of students have graduated, can apply. The accreditation is valid for five years. Aspiring institutes need to be recognized by the UGC and have regular students enrolled in their full-time teaching and research programs.

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