EDEN IAS

FAILURES – CAUSES OF INEFFECTIVENESS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS| GS ARTICLES

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>1) An Allies Organization: </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>League of Nations came to be viewed as an organization of the Allied Powersespecially of France and Britain, setup for implementation of unjust peace treaties, which failed to satisfy allnations.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>a) </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Turkey and Italy were both dissatisfied with the peace treaties. While Turkey was aggrieved atterritories it considered as inalienable being handed over to Greece, Italy was dissatisfied for notgetting the territorial gains it was promised in 1915 in lieu of entering the war in favor of the Allies.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>b) </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The Peace treaties signed were against principle of Self Determination. For instance, millions ofGermans, after the peace treaties, resided outside Germany in Czechoslovakia and Poland. Similarly,many Turks were now residents of Greece.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>2) Conference of Ambassadors: </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>This body was setup as a temporary body to resolve disputes regarding peacetreaties until the League of Nations was setup and made fully functional. But, it continued to exist evenafter the formation of the League. This hurt the legitimacy and the authority of the League of Nations. At times, the Conference of Ambassadors overruled the League&rsquo;s decisions, for example, in case of the Corfu incident (1923) involving Mussolini&rsquo;s Italy and Greece.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>3) Failure of Disarmament: </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>It was only Germany, which was made to disarm under the Treaty of Versailles.The League failed to convince other major powers to disarm. Britain and France did not want self-disarmament. When the World Disarmament Conference was held in 1932-33, Hitler demanded equality ofarmament with France. But France refused as it feared that Germany would become an equal militarypower and soon emerge as a threat to its frontiers. Hitler used this as an excuse to quit the WorldDisarmament Conference. Soon, he would denounce the League of Nations and makeGermany quit it aswell.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>4) Mockery of Collective Security: </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The League of Nations failed to check any violations of the frontiersestablished after the WWI through the peace treaties.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>a) 1923 resolution: </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>It allowed each member the freedom to decide if it wanted to contribute any militaryresources during activation of the collective security clause. This literally nullified the responsibility thatall the member nations had in their duty of checking any act of war by another member nation.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>b) Failure of Geneva Protocol (1924): </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The British and French governments had proposed a GenevaProtocol. It provided for compulsory arbitration of disputes. It committed the League of Nationsmembers to come to immediate military aid of a victim of aggression and also aimed at generaldisarmament.</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>c) Economic Crisis of 1929 </span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>led to poverty and unemployment and consequently, right wing governmentscame to power across the world. These governments were more aggressive and violated the League Covenant.</span></span></span></span></p>

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<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”background:white”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>5) The League of Nations was not a truly representative organization: </span></span></b><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>It had limited membership. This alsoresulted in lack of funds for the League&rsquo;s work. The three main world powers, namely, USA, USSR andGermany were not its members when the Leaguewas formed in 1920. Thus, it became an organization of the French and the British and lacked the legitimacy of being called a truly representative world body. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”background:white”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Germany was admitted only by 1926, while USSR gained membership in 1934. USA never joined the Leagueof Nations and neither did it ratify the peace treaties. After the World War I, the US public rejectedWoodrow Wilson and his fourteen points and US reverted back to its Policy of Isolation. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”background:white”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The Republicansviewed LoN as a world government, which would threaten US national sovereignty and freedom. It did notwant to be involved in any future military conflict or to be involved in the European affairs. By 1933, Japan had quit the League of Nations and soon after that the Hitler&rsquo;s Germany also left the League. Thus, on theeve of the World War II, the League of Nations was in ruins and a failure.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

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<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”background:white”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The League failed to implement its decisions in disputes, where the verdict of the League was againsta major power. Aggressive regimes like Japan, Italy and Germany defied the League. Britain and France did notdo much to give teeth to the League. The Economic Crisis of 1929 was also responsible in its own way. TheConference of Ambassadors undermined League&rsquo;s authority. Important powers like Germany, US, USSR were not<br />
its members. The League Covenant was weak and it failed to provide a real collective security.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

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