EDEN IAS

GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS OF HISTORY I HISTORY CONCEPT SERIES I ARTICLE – I

<p align=”center” style=”text-align:center; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><u><span lang=”EN-GB” style=”font-size:20.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS OF HISTORY.</span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p>

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<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><u><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>Geographical Factors</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p>

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<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>India or Bharatvarsa is bounded on north by Himalayas and on the south by ocean. A part of Jambudvipa, the scriptures called it Bharatvarsa or where the descendants of Bharatas live. </span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>The name Hindu or India is given by the Persians.</span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>They call it Sapta-Sindhu, a land watered by the river Sindhu. The ancient name Bharatvarsa has its authenticity in ancient literature that refers to Bharat clan that dominated the large area of the country.</span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>On the north the huge range of Himalayas render very strong frontier to this country. The other mountains like Hindukush and Vindhyachal have equally played decisive roles in molding the history of land.</span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>The five passes of Himalayas&mdash;Khyber, Bolan, Tochi, Gomal and Kurram served as important ways for invasion and migrations that influenced the formation of the history of the land. Khyber and Bolan passes are the major ones. Rig-Veda refers to Tochi-Kurram pass used by Aryan invaders.</span></span></span></span></li>
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<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><u><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>Important passes:</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:center”><img alt=”” src=”https://i.filecdn.in/476edenias/Capture1-1603444879796.PNG” /></p>

<ul>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>These five natural routes, known as five fingers, connect Iran and central Asia with India. The passes eased the movement and the invaders used these to conquer the land ulti&shy;mately changing the entire court of history and moulding the civilisation.</span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>Hindukush range has two passes-Qora-Kottal and Dandan-Shikan that connect Western Af&shy;ghanistan and Hari Rud valley with Balkh (Bactria). This route facilitates the eastward movement towards Kabul. Between Kabul and Kandahar, a series of valleys and mountain passes offer several ways to Punjab frontiers.</span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>The Huns, Persians, Greeks, Sakas, Turks and Afghans en&shy;tered the country through these passes. They not only politically dominated the land but also influ&shy;enced the culture and the society.&nbsp;</span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>The vast coastline had activated the maritime activities and led to the establish&shy;ment of a number of harbours. The trade relations with Rome, China, Malaysia, and South-east Asia were developed.</span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>The plains of north India were fertile land that rendered prosperity to the country</span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>The various races that entered the region as invaders settled down here. In course of time they lost their identity. The Indian society is a mixture of various races like Aryans, Dravidians, Persians, Greeks, Turks, Mughals, Huns, Sakas, Kushans, etc. This led to the formation of a composite culture in India.</span></span></span></span></li>
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