EDEN IAS

LAWS INCONSISTENT WITH FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS| GS ARTICLES

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Article 13 declares that all laws that are inconsistent with or inderogation of any of the fundamental rights shall be void. In otherwords, it expressively provides for the doctrine of judicial review. Thispower has been conferred on the Supreme Court (Article 32) and thehigh courts (Article 226) that can declare a law unconstitutional andinvalid on the ground of contravention of any of the Fundamental</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Rights.</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>The term &lsquo;law&rsquo; in Article 13 has been given a wide connotation soas to include the following:</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>(a) Permanent laws enacted by the Parliament or the statelegislatures;</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>(b) Temporary laws like ordinances issued by the president or thestate governors;</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>(c) Statutory instruments in the nature of delegated legislation(executive legislation) like order, bye-law, rule, regulation ornotification; and</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>(d) Non-legislative sources of law, that is, custom or usage havingthe force of law.</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Thus, not only a legislation but any of the above can be challengedin the courts as violating a Fundamental Right and hence, can bedeclared as void.</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”text-align:justify”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-IN” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;”>Further, Article 13 declares that a constitutional amendment is not alaw and hence cannot be challenged. However, the Supreme Courtheld in the <i>Kesavananda Bharati </i>case (1973) that a Constitutionalamendment can be challenged on the ground that it violates afundamental right that forms a part of the &lsquo;basic structure&rsquo; of theConstitution and hence, can be declared as void.</span></span></span></span></span></p>

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