EDEN IAS

NEANDERTHAL MAN – HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS I ANTHROPOLOGY CONCEPT SERIES I ARTICLE – V

<p style=”margin-bottom: 13px; text-align: center;”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><u><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>NEANDERTHAL MAN / HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS</span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p>

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<p><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif”>Neanderthals are an extinct species of genus Homo who appeared between 200,000 and 250,000 years ago. They are closely related to modern humans, differing in DNA by just 0.12%. Their fossils have been found in Eurasia, Western Europe, and Central &amp; Northern Asia. For the first time, their fossils were discovered in <b><u>Neander valley in Germany</u></b>. The Neanderthals lived during Last Inter-Glacial to Last Glaciation period and the geological time was <b><i><u>Middle to Upper Pleistocene</u></i></b> period. In the year 1864, <b>William King</b> coined the name <b><i>Homo neanderthalensis</i></b>. Later, it was named as <b><i><u>Homo sapiens neanderthalensis</u></i></b>, a subspecies of Homo sapiens. The physical structure of the Neanderthal, as evidenced from the fossil records, was found to be well suited for survival in cold climate; their barrelled chests and stocky limbs stored body heat in a better manner. However, the rapid fluctuations of weather caused ecological changes to which the Neanderthals could not adapt. Neanderthals died out in Europe between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago which coincides with the start of a very cold period. Modern humans co-existed with them in Europe starting around 35,000 years. Neanderthals inhabited European continent for a long period of time before the arrival of modern humans.</span></span></span></p>

<p><span><img alt=”” src=”https://i.filecdn.in/476edenias/10-1604393609275.jpg” /></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Some defining features of their skulls include the <b><u>large middle part of the face</u></b>, <b><u>angled cheek bones</u></b>, and a huge nose for humidifying and warming cold, dry air. Their bodies were shorter and stockier than ours, another&nbsp;adaptation&nbsp;to living in cold environments. But their <b><u>brains were just as large as ours</u></b> and often larger proportional to their brawnier bodies. Neanderthals made and used a diverse set of <b><u>sophisticated tools</u></b>, controlled <b><u>fire</u></b>, <b><u>lived in shelters</u></b>, made and wore <b><u>clothing</u></b>, were skilled hunters of large animals and also ate plant foods, and occasionally made symbolic or ornamental objects. There is evidence that Neanderthals deliberately <b><u>buried their dead</u></b> and occasionally even <b><u>marked their graves with offerings, such as flowers</u></b>. No other&nbsp;primates, and no earlier human&nbsp;species, had ever practiced this sophisticated and symbolic behavior. </span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><u><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>DISCOVERY</span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><u><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Neanderthal 1</span></span></u></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”> was the first specimen to be recognized as an early human&nbsp;fossil. When it was discovered in 1856 in Germany, scientists had never seen a specimen like it: the oval shaped skull with a low, receding forehead and distinct browridges, the thick, strong bones. In 1864, it became the first fossil&nbsp;hominin&nbsp;species&nbsp;to be named. Geologist William King suggested the name&nbsp;<i><u>Homo </u></i><u>neanderthalensis</u>, after these fossils found in the Feldhofer Cave of the Neander Valley in Germany (<i>tal</i>&mdash;a modern form of&nbsp;<i>thal</i>&mdash;means &ldquo;valley&rdquo; in German). Several years after Neanderthal 1 was discovered, scientists realized that prior fossil discoveries in 1829 at Engis, Belgium, and in 1848 at Forbes Quarry, Gibraltar were also Neanderthals.&nbsp;</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><u><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>SURVIVAL</span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Compared to early humans living in tropical Africa, with more abundant edible plant foods available year-round, the number of plant foods Neanderthals could eat would have dropped significantly during the winter of colder climates, forcing Neanderthals to exploit other food options like <b><u>meat</u></b> more heavily. There is evidence that Neanderthals were specialized seasonal hunters, eating animals were available at the time (i.e. reindeer in the winter and red deer in the summer).&nbsp;Scientists have clear evidence of Neanderthal hunting from uncovering sharp wooden spears and large numbers of big game animal remains were hunted and butchered by Neanderthals. There is also evidence from Gibraltar that when they lived in coastal areas, they exploited marine resources such as mollusks, seals, dolphins and fish. Isotopic chemical analyses&nbsp;of Neanderthal bones also tell scientists the average Neanderthal&rsquo;s diet consisted of a lot of meat. Scientists have also found plaque on the remains of molar teeth containing starch grains; concrete evidence that Neanderthals ate plants. </span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Neanderthals used tools for activities like hunting and sewing. Left-right arm asymmetry indicates that they <u>hunted with&nbsp;thrusting</u> (rather than throwing) spears that allowed them to kill large animals from a safe distance. Neanderthal bones have a <u>high frequency of fractures</u>. Neanderthals also controlled fire, lived in shelters, and occasionally made symbolic or ornamental objects.&nbsp;</span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><u><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Physical Features of Neanderthals</span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p>

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<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Males were 164-168 cm (65-66 inch) and females about 152-156 cm (60-61 inch) tall. </span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Skull was dolichocephalic.</span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Average length and breadth of the skull were 208 mm and 156 mm respectively.</span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>The average cranial capacity was 1650 cc.</span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>The posterior part of the skull was comparatively broader than the anterior part for which it looks like a barrel from the back. </span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Forehead region was retreating and the nuchal region was rugged.</span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”>Face as a whole was robust and projecting forward having large incisors and canines.</span></span></span></span></span></li>
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