EDEN IAS

PRESIDENT’S RULE | GS ARTICLES

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Article 355 imposes a duty on the Centre to ensure that the government of every state is carried on in</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. It is this duty in the performance of which the</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Centre takes over the government of a state under Article 356 in case of failure of constitutional</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Machinery in state. This is popularly known as &lsquo;President&rsquo;s Rule&rsquo;. It is also known as &lsquo;State Emergency&rsquo; or</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>&lsquo;Constitutional Emergency&rsquo;.</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b>The President&rsquo;s Rule can be proclaimed under Article 356 on two grounds:</b></span></span></span></p>

<ul>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Article 356 empowers the President to issue a proclamation, if he is satisfied that a situation has</span></span></span></li>
</ul>

<p style=”margin-left:48px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Arisen in which the government of a state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. The president can act either on a report of the governor of the state or otherwise too.</span></span></span></p>

<ul>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Article 365 says that whenever a state fails to comply with or to give effect to any direction from the Centre, it will be lawful for the president to hold that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.</span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>A proclamation imposing President&rsquo;s Rule must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament within two months from the date of its issue. However, if the proclamation of President&rsquo;s Rule is issued at a time when the Lok Sabha has been dissolved or the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of two months without approving the proclamation, then the proclamation survives until 30 days from the first sitting of the Lok Sabha after its reconstitution, provided the Rajya Sabha approves it in the mean time.</span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>If approved by both the Houses of Parliament, the President&rsquo;s Rule continues for six months. It can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament, every six months.</span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>However, if the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of six months without approving the further continuation of the President&rsquo;s Rule, then the proclamation survives until 30 days from the first sitting of the Lok Sabha after its reconstitution, provided the Rajya Sabha has in the meantime approved its continuance.</span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Every resolution approving the proclamation of President&rsquo;s Rule or its continuation can be passed by either House of Parliament only by a simple majority, that is, a majority of the members of that House present and voting.</span></span></span></li>
</ul>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 introduced a new provision to put restraint on the power of</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Parliament to extend a proclamation of President&rsquo;s Rule beyond one year. Thus, it provided that,</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>beyond one year, the President&rsquo;s Rule can be extended by six months at a time only when the following</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>two conditions are fulfilled:</span></span></span></p>

<ul>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>a proclamation of National Emergency should be in operation in the whole of India, or in the whole or any part of the state; and</span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>The Election Commission must certify that the general elections to the legislative assembly of the concerned state cannot be held on account of difficulties.</span></span></span></li>
</ul>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>A proclamation of President&rsquo;s Rule may be revoked by the President at any time by a subsequent</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>proclamation. Such a proclamation does not require the parliamentary approval.</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b>Consequences of President&rsquo;s Rule:</b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>The President acquires the following extraordinary powers when the President&rsquo;s Rule is imposed in a</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>state:</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>1. He can take up the functions of the state government and powers vested in the governor or any other</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>executive authority in the state.</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>2. He can declare that the powers of the state legislature are to be exercised by the Parliament.</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>3. He can take all other necessary steps including the suspension of the constitutional provisions relating</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>to anybody or authority in the state.</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Therefore, when the President&rsquo;s Rule is imposed in a state, the President dismisses the state council</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Of ministers headed by the chief minister. The state governor, on behalf of the President, carries on the</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>State administration with the help of the chief secretary of the state or the advisors appointed by the</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>President. The President either suspends or dissolves the state legislative assembly. The Parliament</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Passes the state legislative bills and the state budget.</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>When the state legislature is thus suspended or dissolved:</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>1. The Parliament can delegate the power to make laws for the state to the President or to any other</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Authority specified by him in this regard,</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>2. The Parliament or in case of delegation, the President or any other specified authority can make laws</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Conferring powers and imposing duties on the Centre or its officers and authorities,</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>3. The President can authorize, when the Lok Sabha is not in session, expenditure from the state</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Consolidated fund pending its sanction by the Parliament, and</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>4. The President can promulgate, when the Parliament is not in session, ordinances for the governance</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>Of the state.</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”>A law made by the Parliament or president or any other specified authority continues to be operative even after the President&rsquo;s Rule. This means that the period for which such a law remains in force is not coterminous with the duration of the proclamation. But it can be repealed or altered or re-enacted by the state legislature. The constitutional position, status, powers and functions of the concerned state high court remain same even during the President&rsquo;s Rule.</span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”>&nbsp;</p>

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