EDEN IAS

Ramsar sites

UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS | INDIA’S RAMSAR SITES RISE TO 54 AS 5 WETLANDS GET ‘INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE’ TAG | 28TH JULY | HINDUSTAN TIMES

SYLLABUS SECTION: GS III (ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY)

WHY IN NEWS?

Recently, Union environment ministry has announce that India has designate five new Ramsar sites as ‘wetlands of international importance’.

  • After this the number of Ramsar sites has been increase to 54 from 49 in the country.

SITES THAT HAVE BEEN DESIGNATE AS RAMSAR SITES:

1)Tamil Nadu:

  • Karikili Bird Sanctuary:
  • Home to cormorants, egrets, grey heron, open-bills stork, darter, spoonbill, white ibis, night herons, grebes, grey pelican among others.
  • Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest :
  • One of the last remaining natural wetlands of Chennai city.
  • Pichavaram Mangrove:
  • It supports several threatened species, such as the critically endangered great white-bellied heron, spoon-billed sandpiper, the endangered spotted greenshank and the vulnerable olive ridley turtle.
  • It is one of the largest mangrove ecosystems in India with littoral and swamp forest habitats, located between the estuaries of the Vellar and Kollidam rivers.
  • Trees here are permanently root under a few feets of water.

2) Mizoram:

  • Pala Wetland:
  • It is the largest natural wetland in Mizoram.
  • The wetland, a deep lake (over 16 metres deep), supports a rich diversity of animal species, including at least seven mammals, 222 birds, 11 amphibians and 21 reptiles.
  • The wetland provides an excellent habitat for the sambar deer, wild boars and barking deer. It’s also a habitat for the endangered Hoolock gibbon and Phayre’s leaf monkey.
  • The Pala wetland is reveres by the local Mara people

3) Madhya Pradesh:

  • Sakhya Sagar:
  • Created from the Manier river in 1918.
  • Located near Madhav National Park in the Shivpuri district of Madhya Pradesh

RAMSAR CONVENTION:

  • Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty for the conservation of wetlands.
  • Under this contracting parties are expected to identify and place suitable wetlands onto the ‘list of wetlands of international importance’, also known as the Ramsar List.
  • Ramsar Convention was adopted in 1971.
RAMSAR SITE CRITERIA:

 

A wetland is an ecosystem flooded by water, seasonally or permanently.

A wetland can be considered internationally important if any of the following nine criteria apply:

  • Criterion 1: “it contains a representative, rare, or unique example of a natural or near-natural wetland type found within the appropriate biogeographic region.”
  • 2: “it supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological communities.”
  • 3: “it supports populations of plant and/or animal species important for maintaining the biological diversity of a particular biogeographic region.”
  • 4: “it supports plant and/or animal species at a critical stage in their life cycles, or provides refuge during adverse conditions.”
  • 5: “it regularly supports 20,000 or more water birds.”
  • 6: “it regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of water bird.”
  • 7: “it supports a significant proportion of indigenous fish subspecies, species or families, life-history stages, species interactions and/or populations that are representative of wetland benefits and/or values and thereby contributes to global biological diversity.”
  • Criterion 8: “it is an important source of food for fishes, spawning ground, nursery and/or migration path on which fish stocks, either within the wetland or elsewhere, depend.”
  • Criterion 9: “it regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of wetland-dependent non-avian animal species.”

Read more: UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS

Source: HINDUSTAN TIMES

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